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Photovoltaic (PV) power is one of the fastest growing renewable energy technologies today. Because of the intermittent nature of PV electrical output, energy storage will be an important enabler for its continued growth. Of the candidate storage technologies, electrochemical batteries hold the most promise for widespread deployment. Development of economical, scalable PV energy storage systems is being actively pursued across a range of battery technologies, from lead-acid to lithium-ion to redox flow batteries. 

PV is unique among electricity generation technologies. It requires no consumable fuel and often involves no moving parts, generating emissionsfree electricity with relatively low operation and maintenance costs, even in remote locations. In addition, PV is highly modular and scalable, with installations ranging from wattscale solarpowered garden lights up to megawattscale solar farms producing wholesale electricity. However, PV is inherently variable and intermittent: the power output varies throughout the day as the angle of incidence changes, decreases rapidly if a cloud passes overhead, and drops to zero at night.

Auteur(s): Ratcharit Ponoum; Michael Rutberg; Antonio Bouza,

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